【蘇嘉豪提案修法確立工會及罷工權保障原則】 ———Sulu Sou introducts bill to protect the labour unions rights and the right of labour strike

法案文本及理由陳述︳reurl.cc/Vgz6Z

本澳遲遲未就保障組織和參加工會、罷工權利立法,《工會法》法案過去10次遭立法會否決。議員蘇嘉豪今(6月3日)向立法會提交《工會權原則性立法》法案,旨在修改第4/98/M號法律《就業政策及勞工權利綱要法》。

法案建議加入多項權利保障原則:(一)組織工會和參加工會的權利;(二)透過工會維護勞工權益的權利;(三)透過工會締結集體勞動協議的權利(集體談判權);(四)在法定情況下罷工的權利。上述權利仍須另行細則性立法,才能具體實行和保障,故法案同時建議列明須採取措施確保工會及罷工權利的行使受法律保障。

《基本法》和適用於本澳的國際公約都保障工會權和罷工權,但本澳至今仍是全中國唯一缺乏法律保障相關權利的地方。蘇嘉豪強調特區政府有不可推卸的憲制責任和國際義務,立法賦予工會明確的法定地位,保障數十萬僱員不會基於參加工會、集體談判或罷工而招致秋後算賬或歧視。

蘇嘉豪表示,即使過去投票反對《工會法》的多數議員,也表明原則上支持立法,只因對法案個別具體內容、立法技術、時機存疑。因此,現時有條件和必要修法先加入相關權利的原則和宣示,並以綱要法律形式確立其重要性,表明特區未來對此進行細則性規範的憲制責任,主動創造立法的有利條件和社會氣氛。

蘇嘉豪指,有關做法並非創新。1998年《綱要法》便提及須採取措施「確保最低工資及其定期調整」。當時立法會對立即實施最低工資並無共識,但也接受先在《綱要法》列明有關措施,作為長遠的勞工政策目標,有關條文也促使政府承諾年內提案全面實施最低工資。

蘇嘉豪引述當年審議《綱要法》的委員會第3/98號意見書,提及在該法列明勞工權利的意義,認為按照立法原意,今次提案修法也可達致多項目標:(一)集中勞工權利於一個法律中,加強工會權和罷工權的價值;(二)令一般立法者不容易局限或廢止工會權和罷工權;(三)表明細則性規範工會權和罷工權是特區的立法目標和憲制責任。

此外,蘇嘉豪日前也將法案文本及理由陳述送交社會協調常設委員會,要求社協按法定職權發表意見,他歡迎社協以至社會各界在一般性討論前或細則性審議期間繼續表達意見。蘇嘉豪重申,議員依法有權提案並透過表決成為法律,毋須事事被動等待政府提案,當政府長年拖延立法保障工會權和罷工權,議員絕對有責任努力嘗試打破政府對有關立法議程的壟斷,推進本澳勞動關係更和諧進步及符合國際標準。

Macau still does not have any legislation on the right to form and join labour unions and the right to strike. The bill of “Labour Union Law” was negatived 10 times by the Legislative Assembly. Legislator Sulu Sou will submit the bill “Principle of Labour Union Rights” to the Assembly today (3rd). The bill will amend the Law no. 4/98/M – Basic Law of employment policy and labour rights. The bill proposes to add multiple labour rights, including: 1. the rights to organize and join labour union; 2. protecting labour rights through labour unions; 3. collective bargaining and; 4. conduct labour strike accordingly to the law. These rights will have to be protected and regulated by a specific legislation. So the bill will also mandate that the exercise of these rights must be protected by future legislation.

The Basic and other international treaties all protect labour union rights and striking rights. But Macau is still the only place in China without protection for these rights. Sulu Sou stresses that the government has duty to propose legislation to protect these rights and to give labour unions their proper legal position.

Sulu Sou says that even the legislators who previously vote no on other Labour Union Bills also support legislation in principle. They just disagree with the specific content of the bill or the timing. Therefore, a statement can be made by adding such content into the law first. It is to confirm that the SAR has a duty to legislate on the matter and also to create a better social condition and atmosphere for future legislations.

This method is not new to Macau. The 1998 Law provides that minimum wage must be guaranteed. The Legislative Assembly then had no consensus on implementing minimum wage but they agree to add such direction into the law first as a long term policy goal. This article has successfully pushed the government to promise to submit a bill to fully implement minimum wage this year.

Sulu Sou quoted the Committee that considered the bill in 1998, specifically the meaning to add labour rights into the law. Sulu Sou thinks that this amendment could also achieve the same goal: 1. concentrating labour rights into a single law to stress their value; 2. making it harder to limit or abolish such rights; 3. stressing that having specific legislation on labour unions rights is a goal and duty of the SAR.

Furthermore, Sulu Sou has also submitted the bill to the Standing Committee for the Coordination of Social Affairs and requested the Committee to express opinion on the bill. He welcomed the Committee to voice out their opinion while the Assembly is considering the bill at different stages of the legislative process. Sulu Sou again stresses that legislators have the right and duty to propose bill and there is no need to wait endlessly for the government to propose. While the government is delaying proposal on the matter, legislators have an obligation to break to monopoly of bill introduction, in order to improve labour relations in Macau and meet international standards.

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